History of Ontario

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    <br>Before 1867<br>Before the landing of the Europeans, the region was inhabited by Algonquian (Ojibwe, Cree, Ottawa and Algonquin) and Iroquois (Iroquois and Huron) tribes. French explorer Etienne Brule landed on this territory in 1610-1612. The Henry Hudson (Hudson) landed on the coast of Hudson Bay in 1611 and declared the region British, but Samuel de Champlain reached Lake Huron in 1615 and French missionaries established a garrison in the Great Lakes. The French settlers were thwarted by the hostility of the Iroquois, who collaborated with the British.<br><br>The British established a trading post on the coast of Hudson Bay in the late 17th century and began a struggle for dominance in Ontario. The Paris Peace Treaty (1763), which ended the Seven Years’ War, transferred almost all French possessions to the British. The region was annexed to Quebec in 1774. From 1783 to 1796, Great Britain gave the supporters of the united empire who left the United States after the American Revolution, 200 acres (0.8 sq. Km) of land and other items so that they could start life on a new land. This measure significantly increased the population of Canada west of the confluence of the Ottawa and St. Lawrence during this period, a fact reflected in the constitutional act of 1791 that divided Quebec into Upper Canada southwest of the confluence of the rivers and Lower Canada east of it. John Graves Simcoe became the first lieutenant governor of Upper Canada in 1793.<br><br>During the Anglo-American War of 1812, the Americans invaded Upper Canada, crossing the Niagara and Detroit rivers, but were defeated and driven back by the combined British and Indian forces. However, in 1813, the Americans gained control of Lakes Erie and Ontario and occupied the city of York (later called Toronto) during the Battle of York. Unable to hold the city, the retreating soldiers burned it to the ground.<br><br>After the war of 1812, a relatively led to a stronger increase in the number of immigrants from Great Britain and Ireland, compared with the number of immigrants from the United States. As in previous decades, the increase in the number of immigrants was supported by the rulers of the colony. Despite the available and often vacant land, many arrivals from Europe (mainly Britain and Ireland) found the climate too harsh to live in, and some of them returned home or headed south. However, in the following decades, population growth significantly exceeded emigration. At the same time, rural communities, canal projects, and a new network of fallow roads spurred increased trade within the colony and with the United States, improving relations between them.<br><br> Toronto in 1854<br><br>In the meantime, Ontario’s many waterways facilitated the development of trade and transport in the offshore areas. With the growth of the population, industry and transport networks developed, which, in turn, led to the further development of the region. By the end of the century, Ontario rivaled Quebec, the nation’s leader in population growth, industry, arts, and communications.<br><br>However, many in the colony were dissatisfied with the ruling aristocratic circles who received economic benefits from the resources of the region (mainly during the reign of the Chateau clique in Lower Canada). These resentments spurred the movement towards republican ideals and sowed the seeds of early Canadian nationalism. Accordingly, a rebellion for responsible government broke out in both regions: Louis-Joseph Papineau led the rebellion in Lower Canada, while William Lyon Mackenzie led the rebellion in Upper Canada.<br><br>Although both uprisings were quickly suppressed, the British government dispatched Lord Durham to investigate the cause of the concern. He recommended the creation of his own government and the reunification of Upper and Lower Canada in an attempt to assimilate French Canadians. The two colonies were united into the Province of Canada under the Union Act of 1840 with the capital at Kingston, and Upper Canada was named Canada West. Parliamentary self-government was authorized in 1848. Due to the large wave of immigration in the 1840s, the population of Canada-West more than doubled by 1851 from the previous decade, causing its to surpass the French-speaking population of Canada East for the first time, upsetting the balance forces in the government.<br><br>The economic boom of the 1850s, fueled by road construction across the province, further expanded Central Canada’s economy.<br><br>The political stalemate between French-speaking and English-speaking politicians and fear of US aggression during the US Civil War prompted the political elite to hold a series of conferences in the 1860s that unified the of British North America. The British North America Act entered into force on July 1, 1867, forming the Dominion of Canada, originally composed of four provinces: Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Quebec and Ontario. The province of Canada was divided into Ontario and Quebec so that each language group received its own province. Under Article 93 of the Act, both Quebec and Ontario must maintain existing educational rights and privileges for Protestant and Catholic minorities. Thus, permission was given to separate the Catholic and general schools in Ontario. However, no province has received constitutional demands to protect these minorities. Toronto became the capital of the province of Ontario.<br>From 1867 to 1896<br>After the formation of the province of Ontario, it continued to build up its economic and political power. In 1872, lawyer Oliver Mowat became prime minister and remained in office until 1896. He fought for provincial rights, weakening the power of the federal government in parts of the provinces, with well-founded appeals to the judiciary committee of the Privy Council of Great Britain. His battles with the federal government resulted in a strong decentralization of Canada, giving the provinces much more power than John MacDonald had planned. He consolidated and expanded Ontario’s educational and provincial institutions, formed counties in Northern Ontario, fought hard to annex parts of Ontario that are not historically Upper Canada (Northwest Ontario, a large section north and west of the Lake Superior and Hudson Bay watershed). which happened on Canada (Ontario Borders) Act 1889… He also oversaw the province’s economic growth. Moat was the creator of what is often called Empire of Ontario…<br><br>Beginning with Sir John MacDonald’s National Police in 1879 and the construction of the Canadian Pacific Railroad (1875–1885) through Northern Ontario prairie to British Columbia, Ontario’s industry flourished. Population growth slowed after the great recession in 1893, but only for a few years. Many newly arrived immigrants and others moved further west by rail.<br>From 1896 to the present<br>The increase in mineral exploration in the late 19th century led to the growth of important mining centers in the northeast, such as Sudbury, Cobalt and Timmins. Hydroelectric power plants were built on the waterways of the province, and the company Hydro Ontario, controlled by the provincial authorities, was created. Access to led to the further development of industry. Ford Motor Company has been present in Canada since 1904 and General Motors since 1918. Automotive manufacturing has become the most profitable industry in Ontario’s economy.<br><br>In July 1912, the Conservative government of Sir James Pliny Whitney issued the Seventeenth Amendment, which severely restricts the French language learning opportunities for the French-speaking minority, which provoked strong backlash from French Canadians. The amendment was canceled in 1927.<br><br>Influenced by events in the United States, the government of Sir William Howard Hirst imposed a ban on alcohol in 1916 with the Temperance Act. However, residents could distill and make their own stocks, and winemakers could continue to export, making Ontario a center for the illegal delivery of alcohol to the United States, where it was outright banned. The ban was lifted in 1927 with the establishment by the government of George Howard Ferguson of the Office of Alcohol Control in Ontario. The sale and consumption of alcohol is still controlled by one of the most stringent laws in North America.<br><br>The period after World War II was a period of exceptional prosperity and growth. Ontario, and in particular Greater Toronto, became a center for immigration to Canada from post-war Europe in the 1950s and 1960s, and after a change in federal immigration law in the 1970s, non-European immigration. From an ethnically British province, Ontario quickly became very multicultural.<br><br>Because of Quebec’s stance, especially after the 1976 elections, many businesses and English-speaking Canadians have moved from Quebec to Ontario. As a result, Toronto bypassed Montreal to become Canada’s largest city and economic center. The poor economy of coastal Canada led to a decrease in the population of these provinces in the 20th century due to strong migration to Ontario.<br><br>Ontario does not have an official language, but in fact it is English. Numerous French-language services are available under the French-language Services Act 1990 in areas with significant francophones. Ottawa is the only city in the province to have an official bilingualism policy since 2001.<br>

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