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    <br><br> (lat.) is a genus of chalcidoid wasps from the family Mymaridae.<br>Spreading<br>Nearctic, Neotropic, Palaearctic, India, China, Australia and Oceania.<br>Description<br>Small chalcidoid wasps of dark brown and black color (antennae and legs are lighter). Body length: 0.545-2.250 mm. The body is smooth and shiny. Antennal club 1-segmented. Wings with long marginal setae. Antennae very long, more than the length of the head together with the chest. Insect parasites such as leafhoppers, humpbacks, bugs (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae, Flatidae, Membracidae, Miridae, Nabidae) and dragonflies (Odonata: Aeshnidae, Lestidae). Have a potentially important role in the biological control of pest species.<br>Taxonomy<br>More than 200 types. Among 9 other non-arctic genera of the group Polynema (Acmopolynema, Cnecomymar, Eustochus, Kalopolynema, Mymar, Neomymar, Palaeoneura, Caraphractus, Stephanodes), Polynema similar to only one (Palaeoneura). It was first isolated in 1833, and its valid status was confirmed during an audit conducted in 2020 by Canadian entomologist John Huber (John T. Huber; Natural Resources Canada c / o Canadian National Collection of Insects, Ottawa, Canada), Jennifer D. Read and Russian-American hymenopterist Sergey Vladimirovich Tryapitsyn (Entomology Research Museum, Department of Entomology, University of California at Riverside, California, USA).<br>Polynema abdominale Soyka, 1956Polynema acutiventre (Soyka, 1956)Polynema aegyptiacum (Soyka, 1950)Polynema aequicoloratum (Soyka, 1950)Polynema albicorne Girault, 1917Polynema albicoxa Ashmead, 1900Polynema albitarse Kieffer, 1913Polynema altitudine (Soyka, 1950)Polynema anamalaiense Mani & Saraswat, 1973Polynema anantanagana Narayanan, 1961Polynema anceps Debauche, 1948Polynema antoniae (Soyka, 1950)Polynema apicale Perkins, 1910Polynema arcticum Soyka, 1956Polynema aspidioti Girault, 1911Polynema assamense Hayat & Singh, 2001Polynema aterrimum (Soyka, 1956)Polynema atractoura Debauche, 1948Polynema atratum Haliday, 1833Polynema atrosimile Soyka, 1956Polynema atrum (Soyka, 1956)Polynema auricorpus Girault, 1917Polynema auripedicellatum (Soyka, 1950)Polynema bakkendorfi Hincks, 1950Polynema bergi Ashmead, 1905Polynema bimaculatipenne Girault, 1911Polynema bischoffi (Soyka, 1950)Polynema bitashimwae Debauche, 1949Polynema boreum Girault, 1915Polynema brevicarinae Annecke & Doutt, 1961Polynema brittanum Girault, 1911Polynema caesariatipenne Girault, 1911Polynema calceatiscapus (Soyka, 1940)Polynema capillatum Soyka, 1956Polynema carbonelli (Ogloblin, 1963)Polynema carpaticum Soyka, 1956Polynema ceroplastae Ghesquière, 1942Polynema ciliatum (Say, 1829)Polynema clotho (Debauche, 1949)Polynema collaris Soyka, 1956Polynema consobrinum Girault, 1911Polynema crassa Mani & Saraswat, 1973Polynema crassicorne Förster, 1847Polynema curtum (Debauche, 1949)Polynema dakhlae (Soyka, 1950)Polynema decoloratum Soyka, 1956Polynema depressicollis Hellén, 1974Polynema dhenkunde Mani & Saraswat, 1973Polynema draperi Girault, 1912Polynema dunense Hayat & Anis, 1999Polynema editha Girault, 1938Polynema elegantissimum Soyka, 1956Polynema elongatum Soyka, 1956Polynema enchenopae Girault, 1911Polynema englandicum Özdikmen, 2011Polynema euchariforme Haliday, 1833Polynema europense Özdikmen, 2011Polynema eurydice (Debauche, 1949)Polynema eutettexi Girault, 1917Polynema fasciatum (Debauche, 1949)Polynema fennicosimile (Soyka, 1940)Polynema fennicum Soyka, 1946Polynema filicorne Soyka, 1956Polynema flavipes Walker, 1846Polynema florum Girault, 1929Polynema foersteri Soyka, 1946Polynema frater Girault, 1913Polynema fulmeki Soyka, 1941Polynema fumipenne Walker, 1846Polynema fuscipes Haliday, 1833Polynema gallica Soyka, 1956Polynema gargarae Viggiani & Jesu, 1986Polynema gaucho Triapitsyn & Aquino, 2010Polynema gigas Perkins, 1910Polynema giraulti Perkins, 1912Polynema globosiventris Soyka, 1956Polynema gracile (Nees, 1834)Polynema gracilior Soyka, 1946Polynema graculus Girault, 1911Polynema grande (Taguchi, 1971)Polynema grenadense Ashmead, 1900Polynema haitianum Dozier, 1932Polynema halidayi Debauche, 1948Polynema hawaiiense Ashmead, 1901Polynema hebe (Debauche, 1949)Polynema helochaeta (Debauche, 1949)Polynema howardii (Ashmead, 1887)Polynema howdeni (Yoshimoto, 1990)Polynema hundsheimense Soyka, 1956Polynema hyalinipenne Girault, 1917Polynema illustre Soyka, 1956Polynema imitatrix Gahan, 1918Polynema inconsuetum Soyka, 1956Polynema jassidarum Perkins, 1910Polynema kalatopense Mani & Saraswat, 1973Polynema kamathi Mani & Saraswat, 1973Polynema kressbachi Soyka, 1956Polynema laetum Förster, 1847Polynema lansi Soyka, 1956Polynema latior Soyka, 1956Polynema latipectoris Soyka, 1956Polynema latipenne Förster, 1847Polynema latissimum Soyka, 1956Polynema longicauda Kieffer, 1913Polynema longigaster Soyka, 1956Polynema longior Soyka, 1956Polynema longipectoris (Soyka, 1956)Polynema longipennatum Soyka, 1956Polynema longipes (Ashmead, 1887)Polynema longum (Soyka, 1956)Polynema loriger Kieffer, 1916Polynema lucidum Soyka, 1956Polynema luteolum (Ogloblin, 1960)Polynema maculipes (Ashmead, 1887)Polynema magniceps Ashmead, 1900Polynema maidli Soyka, 1956Polynema malkwitzi Soyka, 1956Polynema manaliense Hayat & Anis, 1999Polynema marginatum (Soyka, 1940) marilandicum Girault, 1917Polynema medicae (Annecke & Doutt, 1961)Polynema megacephala Risbec, 1951Polynema mendeli Girault, 1913Polynema microptera Bakkendorf, 1934Polynema modestum (Soyka, 1940)Polynema mundum Soyka, 1946Polynema mutabile Botoc, 1963Polynema nanum Perkins, 1910Polynema nativum Girault, 1929Polynema needhami Ashmead, 1900Polynema neofuscipes (Soyka, 1946)Polynema neopusillum Soyka, 1956Polynema neorectum Soyka, 1956Polynema neustadti Soyka, 1956Polynema nigriceps Soyka, 1956Polynema nigrocoxalis (Soyka, 1940)Polynema novickyi Soyka, 1946Polynema nupogodi Triapitsyn & Aquino, 2008Polynema oahuense Perkins, 1910Polynema oreades (Debauche, 1949)Polynema orientale Girault, 1917Polynema ovatum Soyka, 1956Polynema ovulorum (Linnaeus, 1758)Polynema pallidipenne Soyka, 1956Polynema pallidiventre (Ogloblin, 1960) Soyka, 1956Polynema palustre (Soyka, 1940)Polynema parvipennis Soyka, 1956Polynema parvipetiolatum Soyka, 1956Polynema pechlaneri Soyka, 1956Polynema pellucens Soyka, 1956Polynema pennicilipennis Soyka, 1956Polynema perforator Perkins, 1910Polynema perkinsi Özdikmen, 2011Polynema permagnum Soyka, 1956Polynema pernigripes Girault, 1917Polynema phaseoli Dozier, 1932Polynema picea Soyka, 1956Polynema picipes Girault, 1905Polynema pilipennis Soyka, 1956Polynema pilosum (Soyka, 1940)Polynema platense (Brèthes, 1913) poeta Girault, 1913Polynema polandicum Özdikmen, 2011Polynema polonicum Soyka, 1956Polynema polychromum (Ogloblin, 1960)Polynema porteri (Brèthes, 1917)Polynema pratensiphagum Walley, 1929Polynema prolongatum (Soyka, 1956)Polynema protractum Soyka, 1956Polynema pulchricoloris Soyka, 1956Polynema pusilloides Debauche, 1948Polynema pusillum Haliday, 1833Polynema pyrophila Perkins, 1910Polynema quadricaput Soyka, 1956Polynema quadruplex (Soyka, 1940)Polynema rectosimile Soyka, 1956Polynema rectum Soyka, 1956Polynema reginum Girault, 1912Polynema reticulatum (Ogloblin, 1946)Polynema richmondense Hincks, 1960Polynema rubriventris Perkins, 1910Polynema ruficolle Kieffer, 1913Polynema rufonigrum Soyka, 1956Polynema ruschkai Soyka, 1956Polynema ruymbekei Mathot, 1969Polynema sachtlebeni Soyka, 1956Polynema saga (Girault, 1911)Polynema schmitzi Soyka, 1956Polynema schulzewskyi Soyka, 1956Polynema scrutator Perkins, 1910Polynema secundobreve Soyka, 1956Polynema serratum (Debauche, 1949)Polynema seychellense Masi, 1917Polynema sibylla Girault, 1911Polynema solare (Soyka, 1940)Polynema soykai Özdikmen, 2011Polynema speciosum (Soyka, 1940)Polynema spectabile (Soyka, 1956)Polynema stammeri Soyka, 1946Polynema striaticorne Girault, 1911Polynema stubaiense (Soyka, 1956)Polynema synophropsis Viggiani & Jesu, 1991Polynema tantalea Perkins, 1910Polynema tenue Soyka, 1956Polynema tenuiforme Soyka, 1956Polynema tenuisimile (Soyka, 1940)Polynema terrestre Perkins, 1910Polynema triscia Perkins, 1910Polynema umbratum (Debauche, 1949)Polynema umbrosum Soyka, 1956Polynema unicolor Soyka, 1956Polynema uroxys (Debauche, 1949)Polynema uruguayense Özdikmen, 2011Polynema valkenburgense Soyka, 1931Polynema vallis (Soyka, 1940)Polynema varians Soyka, 1956Polynema venezuelaense (Yoshimoto, 1990)Polynema vitripenne (Förster, 1847)Polynema wagneri Rimsky-Korsakov, 1920Polynema waterhousei Hincks, 1950Polynema weyeri (Soyka, 1956)Polynema woodi Hincks, 1950Polynema xiphium (Debauche, 1949)Polynema zetes Girault, 1911Addition2021: Polynema aristokratka Triapitsyn, 2021 (New Zealand), P. baronessa (New Zealand), P. grafinya (New Zealand), P. imperatrix (Australia), P. koroleva (New Zealand), P. markiza (New Zealand), P. princessa (Australia), P. rangatira Triapitsyn, 2021 (New Zealand)

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